Directive 2001/29/EC on the harmonisation of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society (the “Copyright Directive”) sets forth several important rules relating to private copying and “fair compensation”. This analysis, prepared by the Copyright Levies Reform Alliance and its network of national counsels, looks at how 20 EU Member States with private copy levies regimes have implemented (or are proposing to implement) these rules.

Each country analysis provides an unofficial translation of the relevant national rules implementing Copyright Directive Article 5.2(b). Each analysis also provides background on the functioning of the national levy regimes in the various markets, and explores how the Copyright Directive’s levies-related provisions are being applied in practice.

Economic Impact Study Private Copying Levies on Digital Equipment and Media Nathan Study.

The Copyright Levies Reform Alliance (CLRA) produced 4 studies supporting the case for the phasing out / freezing of levies:

  • The “DRM-Enabled Online Content Services in Europe and the USA (DRM Uptake Study, October 2005)
  • The “Analysis of National Levy Schemes and the EU Copyright Directive Legal” (Legal Study, February 2006)
  • The (Levies Collection Study, April 2006)iv) The Nathan Associates Economic Impact Study (Economic Study, April 2006)
Market Value of Private Copying Levies on Digital Equipment and Media in Europe (Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Spain and Sweden)
This study provides an overview of online content services that are protected by digital rights management (DRM) software and are available in Europe and in the United States. DRM technology provides copy protection against piracy and allow for usage rules that vary by service and consumers’ needs. The scope of the study includes online music services and ringtones.

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13 EU Member States

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